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PAPER 1 (101/1)


Paper 1017      1 is intended to test the candidate’s ability to communicate in writing. Communication is established at different levels of intelligibility, correctness, accuracy, fluency, pleasantness and originality. Within the constraints set by each question, it is the linguistic competence shown by the candidate that should carry most of the marks. In a factual essay, attention must also be given to the format, tone and ability to follow instructions.


Examiners should not hesitate to use the full range of marks for each essay. In a two-essay paper, it is the final, total mark that counts. It is important to determine FIRST how each essay communicates and in which category A, B, C or D it fits


DCLASS        The candidate does not communicate at all. 01-05 or his/her language ability is so minimal that the examiner practically has to guess what the candidate wants to say. The candidate fails to fit English words he/she knows into meaningful sentences. The subject is glanced at or distorted. Practically no punctuation. All kinds of errors. “Broken English” is evident.


D-01-02           Chaotic. Little meaning whatsoever. Question paper or some words. From it simply copied


D03                 Flow of thought almost impossible to follow. The errors are continuous.


D+04-05          Although the English is often broken and the essay is full of errors of all types, we can at least guess what the candidate wants to say.


C CLASS        The candidate communicates understandably but only more or less clearly He/she is not confident with his language. The subject is often undeveloped. There may be some digressions. Unnecessary repetitions are frequent. The arrangement is weak and the flow jerky. There is no economy of language. Mother tongue influence is felt.


C-06-07           The candidate obviously finds it difficult to communicate his ideas.

He/she is seriously hampered by his/her very limited knowledge of structure and vocabulary. This results in many gross errors of agreement, spelling, misuse of prepositions, tenses, verb agreement and sentence construction.


C08                 The candidate communicates but not with consistent clarity.  His/her linguistic abilities being very limited, he/she cannot avoid frequent errors in sentence structure. There is little variety or originality. Very bookish English. Links are weak, incorrect and repeated at times


C+ 09-10         The candidates communicates clearly but in a flat and uncertain manner. Simple concepts, Sentence forms are often strained there may be an overuse of clichés, unsuitable idioms. Proverbs are misquoted or misinterpreted. The flow is still jerky. There are some errors of agreement, spelling. tenses, spelling.


B CLASS        This class is characterized by greater fluency and ease of expression. The candidate demonstrates that he/she can use English as a normal way of expressing himself/herself. Sentences are varied and usually wall constructed. Some candidates become ambitious and even over-ambitious. There may be items of merit of the one word or one expression type.

Many essays in this category may be just clean and unassuming but they still show that the candidate is at ease with the language.


B-11-12           The candidate communicates fairly and with some fluency. There may be little variety in sentence structure. Gross errors are still found occasionally.


B 13                The sentences are varied but rather simple. Straight forward. The candidate does not strain himself in an effort to impress. There is a fair range of vocabulary and idiom. Natural and effortless. Some items of merit. Economy of language.


B+14-15          The candidate communicates his ideas pleasantly and without strain. There are errors and slips. Tenses, spelling and punctuation are quite good. A number of items of merit of the “whole sentence” or the “whole expression” type.


A CLASS       The candidate communicates not only fluently, but attractively with originality and efficiency. He/she has the ability to make us share his/her deep feelings, emotions, enthusiasms.  He/she expresses himself /herself freely and without any visible constraint.

The script gives evidence of maturity, good planning and often humour. Many items of merit which indicate that the candidate has complete command of the language. There is no strain, just pleasantness, clever arrangement, felicity of expression.


A-16-17           The candidate shows competence and fluency in using the language. He /she may lack imagination or originality which usually provides the “spark” in such essays. Vocabulary, idiom, sentence structure, links, variety are impressive. Gross errors are very rare.


A 18                Positive ability. A few errors that are felt to be slips. The story or arguments has  a definite impact. No grammar problem. Variety of structures. A definite spark. Many margin ticks.


A+19-20          The candidate communicates not only information and meaning, but also and especially the candidate’s whole self: his /her feelings, tastes, points of view, youth, culture.  This ability to communicate his/her deep self may express itself in many ways: wide range of effective vocabulary, original approach, vivid and sustained account in the case of a narrative, well-developed and ordered argument in the case of a debate or discussion.

Errors and slips should not deprive the candidate of the full marks he/she deserves. A very definite spark.



Question 1

Points of Interpretation

Must be a report. Report layout (2mks) report tone of language: formal passive voice (2mks). Grammar (tenses, punctuation, agreement), sentence construction (structures, spelling                                                                                                                                                          (6mks)

The report must address the following:

  • Introduction:  purpose and preparation for visit.
  • Body:  places visited and what was learnt, achievements of the trip and application to team’s country, problems encountered and precautions to put in place.
  • Conclusion:     Recommendations


Question 2

1)                  In

2)                  Exception

3)                  Lacked

4)                  Most

5)                  Changed/reversed/altered

6)                  Potential/ability/ capacity

7)                  Suited/friendly/appropriate

8)                  But

9)                  Are

10)              Fast/quickly/rapidly

(10 mks)


Questions 3

a)         i)

  • Drumming
  • One could begin by posing/asking a question “Do you know why chameleon is

shunned?” “Do you know why people die?”

  • Clapping of hands.
  • One could begin with an illustrative/Summarizing riddle or proverb.
  • One could begin with a puzzle or challenge to set the minds of the audience


  • One could begin with a song                                                  (2mks)



§     Use of emphasis by lowering voice when narrating how Ngo’ngruok

soiled the offering.  This should be said in slow and deliberate way.

§      Vary the tone of voice when uttering Nyasaye’s words.  These should be

said in an authoritative, awe-inspiring and thunderous voice

§     Use gestures when referring to the insult(….this insult”) by Nyasaye

§     Use pause between the first and the second sentence to create suspense. 


  • Pay attention to how or whether they respond to the narrator’s use of facial expressions and gestures.  The audience’s look of interest and keenness.


§     Pay attention to how/or whether they respond to the narrators tonal variation and use of pauses.  Audience nodding in agreement


§     Observe their response or otherwise to any question formed by the narrator.

§     Observe their sitting posture and level of concentration to the narrative e.g leaning towards narrator, using gestures                                    (4mks)



b)         air



morning                                                                       (4mks)

c)         i)          died, pride

                        Knew, few, dew

                        Spread, said

                        Do, too                                                            (2mks)


            ii)         Only five

                        They emphasize her tender age.                      (2mks)


iii)        One would say the last two lines as a question, hence use a failing intonation.  Should be said with a sad tone showing disappointment or regret.     (2mks)


d)         Sample Conversation


e)         You:    Excuse me office.  I would like to report the loss of my luggage in which there was…….                                                                                      (2mks)


Police Officer:

You:    My name is Ruth Kerubo Magara. I am fro Ktuto

            Secondary School P.O. box 2222X Kituto                                        (2mks)

Police Officer:

You:    I boarded/got into/took a bus, KTT 526X at Baringo

Shopping Center at about 11.00 a.m My blue metal box was put in the boot/luggage compartment among several others belonging to students from other schools.  Some of these students alighted on the way.

On arrival at Kituto town at 1p.m. I realized that my box was missing.  However, there was a similar one that was unclaimed. Here is a lost of all the items in box. (handing over a list)                                                                                                                       (3mks)

Police Officer:

You:                Thank you very much, officer.  I appreciate your help                       (1mk)


Posted by: Ednah Wambui on 20 June 2012

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